His work has had an enormous impact on many areas of physical chemistry, especially building up a quantitative bridge between the laws of mechanics and complex macroscopic phenomena For his invaluable contributions to the physical sciences and engineering and their impact on the national defense and for his important theoretical and experimental advances in the areas of laminar flow, instability and transition, turbulence, shock-wave boundary layer interaction, transonic flow, aerodynamic noise, magnetofluid dynamics, and the mechanics of liquid helium For his work as an engineer, teacher and author whose scientific analyses, technological innovation, and visionary designs have spanned the gulf not only between science and art, but also between technology and society For leading us into the Polymer Age through his researches on polymers, including synthetic rubber; for helping us into the Space Age through his development of thermally stable polymers; for his many services to the chemical profession; and for educating and inspiring three generations of chemists For translating the most profound discoveries of physical and communication science into the electronic, radio, and computer systems which have improved our culture and enriched the lives of all Americans For pioneering discoveries of a host of fundamental, highly organized structures in living cells through studies combining electron microscopy and biochemistry.
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For his leadership in the science and engineering basic to aeronautics; for his effective teaching and related contributions in many fields of mechanics, for his distinguished counsel to the Armed Services, and for his promoting international cooperation in science and engineering.
For his inspiring leadership in experimental high energy physics, continuing development of the bubble chamber, discovery of many states of elementary particles, and his contributions to National defense.
For his distinguished achievements in electrical engineering, in the technology of computing machines, in the effective coupling of the physical and life sciences; and in his mobilizing science, engineering and education in enduring ways in the service of the Nation.
For indomitable leadership in developing mathematics and training mathematicians, for [his] fundamental publications in algebraic geometry and topology, and for stimulating needed research in nonlinear control processes For outstanding contributions to our understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system and the origin of life on Earth and for pioneering work in the application of isotopes to the determination of the temperatures of ancient oceans For his creation of a rigorous abstract theory of algebraic geometry, and for his profound influence--especially through many brilliant students--on the algebraic structure of contemporary pure mathematics For contributions to our understanding of the structure and properties of matter, especially for his creation of absolute rate theory, one of the sharpest tools in the study of rates of chemical reaction For his many contributions to the development of the theory of molecular structure and for his profound influence, through original contributions and through many brilliant students, on the theory of the magnetic and dielectric properties of materials For sustained and ingenious contributions to the scientific development of high-speed centrifuges, a family of devices that are now widely applied in the physical and biological sciences, in medicine, and in engineering scale isotope-separation For pioneering contributions to the theoretical understanding of nuclear structure and particle dynamics, for highly significant work in atomic and ionospheric physics, and for the inspiration he has given to several generations of American physicists For original and ingenious contributions to comparative and experimental psychology, particularly in the controlled study of learning and motivations, the determinants of animal behavior, and development of affectional behavior For many discoveries and inventions in the field of polarized light, rapid photography, including quick processing of the final photograph, for the development of a unique theory of color vision, and for contributions to national defense For his many individual contributions to the design of the Apollo system, including the planning and interpretation of a large array of advanced experiments necessary to insure the success of this venture into a new and little known environment For numerous fundamental contributions to the understanding of viruses and viral diseases, culminating in the development of the vaccine which has eliminated poliomyelitis as a major threat to human health For his basic contributions to our understanding of the nuclei of atoms, exemplified by his theory of nuclear fission, and his own work and stimulus to others on basic questions of gravitational and electromagnetic phenomena In recognition of his major contributions to the elucidation of the complex chemistry of the steroid hormones and to the application of these compounds to medicinal chemistry and population control by means of oral contraceptives For the discovery that epinephrine and hormones of the pituitary gland occasion their diverse regulatory effects by initiating cellular synthesis of cyclic adenylic acid, now recognized as a universal biological second messenger, which opened a new level of understanding of the subtle mechanisms that integrate the chemical life of the cell while offering hope of entirely new approaches to chemotherapy For his studies in mathematical and theoretical statistics, particularly his pioneering work on broad analysis and synthesis problems of complex systems, and for his outstanding contributions to the applications of statistics to the physical, social, and engineering sciences For his discoveries and inventions in aerodynamics which have provided and will continue to provide substantial improvements in the speed, range and payload of a major portion of high-performance aircraft produced throughout the country For unusual ingenuity in designing experiments to explore the fundamental particles of matter and in designing and constructing the machines to produce the particles, culminating in the world’s most powerful particle accelerator For pioneering applications of magnetic resonance to the study of condensed matter and for subsequent scientific investigations and inventions concerning the interaction of amtter with coherent radiation For his contributions to our knowledge of cellular and subcellular physiology made through work on enzyme-substrate complexes, on the kinetics of enzyme action, and on the mechanism and control of membrane-bound electron transfer during cellular respiration For the extraordinary scope and power of his imagination, which has led to basic contributions in such diverse fields as structural chemistry and the nature of chemical bonding, molecular biology, immunology, and the nature of genetic diseases For significant improvements in the environment and in the health and prosperity of large populations through the development of better water supply and wastewater systems for cities, regions, and entire nations For his pioneering contributions to computer programming languages, especially development of the FORTRAN language which made the modern digital computer directly available to countless scientists and engineers For inventing linear programming and discovering methods that led to wide-scale scientific and technical applications to important problems in logistics, scheduling, and network optimization, and to the use of computers in making efficient use of the mathematical theory For fundamental research on nerve potentials, electroencephalography, and mechanisms of hearing that have formed the basis for advances in neurophysiology, neurology, otolaryngology, audiology, acoustics, occupational health safety, and pediatrics For his principal role in creating modern electronics and his ability to document his knowledge so that it could be effectively communicated to his many students who now populate the worlds of industry, academia, and public service For outstanding contributions to agronomic research including the development of radically new and improved semidwarf varieties of wheat that now grow on five continents and have made the green revolution a reality For his work in making the liquid-fuel rocket a practical launch vehicle and for individual contributions to a series of advanced space vehicles, culminating in the Saturn series that made the Apollo program possible For demonstrating the presence of a new class of hormones, made in the brain, that regulate the function of the pituitary gland, thereby making possible improved diagnosis and treatment of numerous endocrine disorders For fundamental contributions to the elucidation of the fine structure of cells by electron microscopy, which has inaugurated a new era of cell biology integrating structure and function into a comprehensive picture of the life of cells In recognition of his work on probability and mathematical statistics, characterized by novel and fruitful ideas of a general character that opened new fields of study which began to be transplanted abroad and now are acclaimed worldwide For important contributions to biochemistry and molecular biology, discoveries that contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms for energy generation within a cell, the mechanism whereby proteins are synthesized within a cell and the elucidation of the genetic code For seminal contributions to understanding of the energy metabolism of anaerobic bacteria and for elucidation of major mechanisms whereby the rates of metabolic processes are finely matched to the requirements of the living cell For his outstanding contributions to biochemical research, resulting in significant contributions to mankind, including research that led to a clearer understanding of pellagra, and for his national leadership in furthering the state of American science For contributions of unique range, depth, and importance to inorganic and structural chemistry, especially the discovery and elucidation of multiple metal-metal bonds and the application of group theory to chemical problems For his outstanding contribution as a creator-designer and engineer responsible for the design and production of a series of famous aircraft for the military forces of the Untied States and allied nations For his contributions as one of the world’s most innovative and productive organic synthetic chemists who has discovered a variety of important synthetic reactions which have made possible the synthesis of some of the most complicated and important biologically active compounds For his outstanding contribution to molecular physics, understanding the origin of stellar energy, the theory and application of fusion reaction, the field of nuclear safety, and for his continued leadership in science and technology For fundamental contributions to the understanding of matter through its interaction with electromagnetic radiations and the application of this knowledge to the service of mankind, most notably in the invention of the maser and laser For his pioneering research in molecular virology, including identification of the immunizing protein, and his collaborative role in the use of gene splicing to produce the first effective protein vaccine for use in animals or humans For his many contributions to all aspects of nuclear physics and more recently particle physics, and for the leadership he has provided the scientific community, as an administrator of science, as a shaper of scientific thought, and as a prolific source of stimulating ideas His creative applications of theory to organic and inorganic chemistry have brought together the world community of chemists.
The magnitude and uniqueness of his contributions to modern chemistry and the scientific process are contributing to an ever-improving understanding of chemistry In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the advancement of knowledge and the applications of climatology, his furtherance of academic achievement and educational programs in the field; and for the exceptional leadership he gave to the climatological sciences and services of the United States government For his unique contributions to the sciences of the geophysics and physical oceanography which have led to a better understanding of the earth’s rotation, the complexities of ocean waves, tidal processes and acoustic propagation For his varied and ingenious use of infrared spectroscopy to study chemical bonding and molecular dynamics, and for his discovery of the first chemically pumped laser, which has had strong scientific impact as well as practical applications For his fundamental contributions to basic and applied biology in the field of insect pheromones, their chemical composition and blends, their biosysnthesis, how insects perceive and respond to them, and their use in insect pest management For fundamental contributions to physics and astronomy through his investigations into the nature and origin of cosmic rays and his initiatives that led to the direct detection of the solar wind and to the discovery of extrasolar x-ray sources For her pioneering contributions to establishing the concept of neurosecretion and the demonstration of the central role of neurosecretion and neuropeptides in the integration of animal function and development In recognition of his insight into cooperative effects in solids and solid surfaces dependent on interacting many-body systems and for his leadership in showing how one couples formal theoretical work with experimental findings to make significant advances in the area of condensed matter physics For his inspired revival of differential geometry and its connections to analysis; for his contribution to the discovery and applications of the index theorem for differential operators; and for his leadership in using geometric and topological methods in connection with theoretical physics For his seminal contributions to molecular spectroscopy, photochemistry, and chemical reaction dynamics, especially for his incisive theoretical methods and the development of the experimental technique of laser induced fluorescence For his distinguished contributions to science as a nationally acclaimed leader in physics education by virtue of his extraordinary interest in teaching and his total commitment to scientific excellence For his discovery and development of the sodium iodide scintillation counter leading to its application to spectroscopy in virtually all branches of science and technology, including imaging in medicine, and for his contributions to the understanding of the structure of elementary particles and atomic nuclei stemming from the development of the electron scattering method For his world leadership in the development of molecular beam techniques and their application to the study of chemical dynamics.